Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Jumbo jet Boeing 747

Boeing 747, also known as the Jumbo Jet, is the second largest passenger plane today, after the A380 aircraft to operate at the end of October 2007.

This four-engine aircraft, manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, uses two deck configuration where the upper deck is used for business class. 3-class configuration (first class, business class and economy class) can accommodate 400 passengers and 1-class configuration (only economy class only) can accommodate 600 passengers.

747 can fly at high speeds (typically 0.85 Mach or 909 kilometers per hour) and capable of flying between continents (with a maximum distance of 13,570 km to 15,000 km). In 1989, Qantas fly nonstop from London to Sydney, the flight distance is as far as 18,000 km and at the finish within 20 hours and 9 minutes. But the flight did not carry passengers or cargo (aircraft empty). In May 2004, 747 in 1382, with various configurations, has been repaired or improved, making 747 one of Boeing's most successful product.


Boeing 747 air industry was born at the time of the 60's era of rapidly advancing. The era of commercial aircraft at the time, dijuarai by a Boeing 707 that has made a revolution in air travel distance and realize the concept of "Global Cities". At that time, Boeing was also reviewing a large aircraft to win the contract from the U.S. Army but lost to the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy. Pan Am, Boeing loyal client at the time, asked Boeing to make a large passenger aircraft, 2 times the size of the Boeing 707. Then, in 1966, Boeing issued a one-line configuration guide on passenger aircraft that will be named the Boeing 747. Pan Am ordered 25 for the series 747-100. At first, the design of this plane is a plane full of two-level or 'double decker' but because of a problem when an emergency evacuation of the aircraft, this idea was changed to a wide-bodied aircraft.

At that time, the Boeing 747 is expected to be superseded by supersonic transport. So Boeing 747 Boeing recreate that can be converted into cargo aircraft, just in case if the demand for passenger versions will drop one day and the only cargo version that survived. And the cockpit of the plane was moved to the upper deck for the muzzle plane can be made to be opened into one cargo door. At first the upper deck is used for first class and the lobby / bar but this time the deck is usually used as extra seating. With estimated sales of 400 units only, the 747 is able to withstand the criticism and in 1993 as many as 1000 aircraft successfully created.

Assembly 747 is a complicated process. This is because Boeing does not have wards plane large enough to accommodate the planes. So, this company was forced to make a single factory in Everett, Washington, where the plant became the largest plant ever built. Pratt and Whitney also at that time to wake a large turbofan engine, JT9D, for the Boeing 747. So, for safety and the ability to fly, made with 4 Boeing 747 hydraulic system for emergencies, a separate control surfaces, various kinds of 'stuctural redundancy' and 'flaps' which allow complex 747 is used on regular basis.

At first, many airline companies are skeptical about the Boeing 747. At that time, competitor Boeing, McDonnell Douglas and Lockheed, were making wide-bodied aircraft with three engines called 'trijet', which is smaller than 747. In fact, most airlines feel that 747 is too large for long-haul flights and with that they invest in projects 'trijet'. There are also doubts about the ability of 747 to operate with airport infrastructure at the time.

Another issue raised by companies is the use of aviation fuel. This is because the use of aircraft fuel 'trijet' lower than the four-jet aircraft and airlines certainly more likely to choose low-cost fuel. These issues have plagued Boeing in 1970.

However, Boeing has promised to deliver 747 to Pan Am, in a period of approximately four years, Boeing needs to build and test the plane. Within this short period, the development process to make those involved in this project work in a very stressful situation and they are referred to as 'The Incredibles'. Higher costs for aircraft development and infrastructure building in Everett is a gamble for Boeing and the success of this company depends on the success of 747. Boeing is almost gone bankrupt in 1970. However, Boeing won this gamble and eventually monopolize the transport of wide-bodied Boeing for 35 years. The arrival of the Airbus A380 Boeing broke the record.


747 made with several series to meet the client's will.


The first model 747 is the 747 series 100 (747-100), was inaugurated in Everett on September 2, 1968. 747-100 commenced operations on January 1, 1970 with the first client of Pan American World Airways. 747-100B and replace the 747-100, with a fuselage that is more robust and powerful set of tires that kebih. There are also 747-100SR series that can accommodate 550 passengers and used for domestic flights in Japan. Series 100 is capable of flying as far as 7200 km with a full load.

747-100 upper deck, usually have 3 windows, distinguish this aircraft with other aircraft. At first, the upper deck is used as a lounge, but the airlines then use the upper deck to the passenger seat.


Introduced in 1971, the 747-200 has higher power and is capable of flying with a heavier load, when compared with the series 100, and therefore the 747-200 can fly farther. 747-200 can be distinguished by the series 100 with a number of top-level window that is as many as 10 windows, while the 100 series has 3. The variation of the last 200 Series, 200B, built in the late 1980s, capable of flying 10,800 km with a full load.

Series 747-200C and 200F are made to the aircraft cargo. 747-200F cargo plane is completely, 747-200C is a series that can be exchanged into the aircraft cargo or passenger aircraft. Series combined passenger and cargo planes deployed aircraft combo. Unlike the series 100 Indeed, most 200 cargo plane made.


747SP or 'Special Performance,' was introduced in 1976. This series is issued to rival the Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar and because Boeing did not have a simple size wide-body aircraft to compete with the DC-10 and Tristar. Construction costs are high 747 and 737 at the end of 1960 led to Boeing was not able to create new aircraft models 747 and therefore shortened and redesigned so that the speed and maximum distance adjusted to their capacities. SP series, with 3-class configuration, capable of carrying 220 passengers and fly as far as 10,500 km with a speed of 980 km / hour.

747SP is the only aircraft capable of flying with the furthest distance, until launch Airbus A340. Flight of using this model include American Airlines, Pan Am, and Qantas, because the ability of this series to fly across the Pacific Ocean meet these airlines to fly to Tokyo. South African Airways 747SP was also used to route the flight from Johannesburg to London, when the apartheid regime in power, the airline is not allowed to fly across other African countries and led to South African Airways is struggling, and SP is the solution.

Despite having a special ability, SP sales not as expected, where only 45 pieces were sold, which mostly operate for a flight in the Middle East and Africa. One airline that is still used to carry passengers SP general is Iran Air and Syrian Air. Several Gulf Arab states, such as Bahrain and Saudi Arabia are also still use the SP for VIP flights.

One of the special modifications 747SP is astronomical observer Sofia carrying an infrared telescope with a diameter of 2.5 meters. Before modification, the aircraft operated by Pan Am and named "Clipper Lindbergh", and also briefly operated the aircraft for the airline United Airlines.


At first, model 747-300 aircraft is planned to be 'trijet' version of the 747SP. But because demand is lacking, the plan was forgotten.

What then happens, 747-300 become a new model for Boeing and was introduced in 1980. 747-300 is the first model 747 with the upper deck enlarged to increase capacity.


747-400 is the latest model Boeing 747, and the only series made to date. Between the real change is the extension of the wing as much as 2 meters and the addition of 'winglet' / tapering at the tip of the wing almost 2 meters. 747-400 entered the market in 1989 with Northwest Airlines' first client.

400 series made entirely in the form of passengers, 'combo' (747-400m) and cargo (747-400F). Domestic series for the Japanese market that is 747-400D, is the highest capacity passenger aircraft in the world, until the emergence of the A380, and 747-400D can be exchanged into long-distance aircraft when needed.

747-400ER is capable of flying 400 series with the furthest distance in the model 747. 747-400ER also comes in the form of full cargo namely 747-400ERF. One plan currently being prepared for new models namely 747-400XQLR, now converted into 747 Advanced, which is able to fly longer distances.

747 cargo plane Dreamlifter

Boeing announced in October 2003 that the components for 7E7/787, are made throughout the world, will be flown to Everett, Washington to be combined. To transport these components, the Boeing 747-400 to make modifications to the aircraft cargo.

Delivery time can be shortened to 30 days using a single 747. This is quite important because the wing 787 made in 747 Large Cargo Freighter Jepang.Boeing has produced as many as 4 pieces.


747X is a plan to make the 747 series by adding a large upper deck, just like the 757-500. But this plan was rejected after 747Adv development in the process.

Advanced 747

Boeing is now making an effort together with the company pernerbangan to create a new series 747, Boeing 747 Advanced which will use the same cockpit and engine with 7E7/787. 747 was made to fly with less noise, more economical and environmentally friendly. 747 Advanced capacity of 500 passengers with 3-class configuration and can fly as far as 18,816 km with a speed of Mach 0.86.

Boeing 747-8

The Boeing 747-8 is the change of model Boeing 747 Advanced which failed to be created by perusaahan Boeing.Tipe this is the longest aircraft in the world, with more than 76 meters long. The design follows the design of aircraft Boeing 787. Boeing 747-8 was first flown on February 8, 2010 with a cargo version. Later, the Boeing 747-8 passenger version first flight on February 11, 2011. Boeing 747-8 passenger can carry 465 passengers, 15 passengers more than the previous version, the Boeing 747-400. The Boeing 747-8 is also intended to rival the Airbus A380. Boeing 747-8 also has a change, which is located on the wings and engines. The purpose of the wing 747 has changed as to minimize air friction and provide a more robust performance. Boeing's 747-8 uses General Electric engines 2B 67 Next Generation version of a more efficient use of materials bakar.Boeing dakam 747-8 also called intercontinental aircraft, because Boeing version was able to fly from America to Japan, crossed the Atlantic Ocean nonstop.