Saturday, May 21, 2011
Airbus A340 Commercial Passengers Airplanes
Airbus A340 is a large commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Airbus. It has a design similar to the type Airbus A330 but the A340 uses four engines are not just two like the A330. Intended to replace the previous generation aircraft like the Boeing 747 but this latest variants now compete with the Boeing 777. More than 370 A340 operated worldwide in September 2010.
The first study published on the A340 which has the code 1981 TA11, which is shown in the magazine Air International edition in November (along with the appearance of the A300 in the same year at the Farnborough Airshow.) Image concept of A320 (SA 9) and A330 (TA9) also published, along with performance estimates made by Airbus Industrie. Airbus A340 last sent to Iberia in 2010.
A340 was launched in June 1987 as a complement to long-haul flights from short-haul aircraft A320 and A300 medium-range. At that time, a twin-engine Airbus aircraft have a weakness compared to aircraft such as Boeing 747 ETOPS problem which is defined as a rule: a twin-engine aircraft should remain at the farthest distance of 60 minutes daribandara alternative, which prevent them from competing in long distance flights over water. Furthermore, wide-bodied aircraft ETOPS qualified berpenumpang 250-300 seats, peaswat engined three DC-10 and L-1011, is aging, because it was entering the ministry since the early 1970s.
A340 is designed in parallel with the A330 twin-engine aircraft: two planes have the same wing and similar aircraft hull structure, and borrow almost keseliruhan avionics technology and composite structures developed for the A320. A330 and A340 are assembled together in the center of final assembly at Toulouse-Blagnac, France.
A340 is expected to use the new superfan engines made by International Aero Engines, but the development of the machine is stopped. Engine house of the superfan engine has enough space that allows the laying of a large fan at the rear of the machine. As a result of the superfan cancellation by IAE, CFM International CFM56-5C4 engine used as the sole option than to choose another alternative machines. A longer version, the A340-500 and -600, powered by Rolls-Royce Trent 500.
When the A340 make its debut in 1991, warned that the wings are not mechanically strong enough to carry the machine beyond the cruising speed tanpamembengkok and vibrate. To overcome this, a buffer under the wing of the so-called Plastron developed to fix airflow problems around the engine mountings and to add flexibility. A340 modification begin commercial service in 1993 with Lufthansa and Air France
In the 1990s, when airlines began looking for a replacement aircraft for the flight back to the 1970s made 747-100/200, Airbus studied extension of the framework to make the A340-400, which is planned over 70m long. This has become unpopular because of CFM56 engines limit the capability of growth and mileage will be reduced to 10,000 km (5399.6 nmi). When this plan was canceled, a larger wing and new engines decided kembinasi made. Initially, Pratt & Whitney to provide a proposal for a new machine, but the problem of contract makes Airbus chose Rolls-Royce Trent in 1997.
A340 flight control system is equipped with fly-by-wire digital. The aircraft also use the joystick dariapda side using the front wheel, with one stick on the left side and stick the other pilot on the right side of the co-pilot. A340 flight instruments are very similar to those owned by A320, and hiring pilots with the same rating with the A330. this allows the crew to fly the A320 A330/A340 flight and vice versa with minimal additional training. This saves costs for airlines that operate both types of aircraft. The cockpit uses a digital cockpit system using CRT display for aircraft A340-200 and A340-300 and now using screen liquid crystal display (LCD). some major structural composites are also used.
A340 is also the first commercial aircraft that allows passengers to use cell phones during flights. In March 2008 Emirates introduced a system that allows passengers to make calls using their cell phone. But they can not receive calls and the system is not available when the flight prophecy and during takeoff and landing.
A340-300 entered service in 1993 with the first user is Lufthansa and Air France, followed soon thereafter by a version of the -200 and A330. With the introduction of a heavier aircraft Boeing 777, like 777-200ER and 777-300ER in particular, sales of the A340 begins to decline. In recent years the sale of 777 A340 has been defeated with a big difference. Although the GE90 engines larger 777-300ER uses far more fuel than the Trent 500, but by using only two compared to four Trent engine means providing between 8-9% cost savings.
In January 2006, Airbus announced plans to develop A340E unruk (Enhanced / Additional). Airbus states that A340E is more fuel efficient than the A340 and close early versions 8-9% difference with the Boeing 777 with Trent 1500 engines.
Airbus expects to produce 127 units A340 until the year 2016, and after that production will be stopped.
In mid 2008, with the increase in jet fuel prices doubled from a year earlier, the high consumption of fuel made the airline to stop flights A340 so far that has a travel time of more than 15 hours. Thai Airways International to cancel flights 17 hours non-stop from Bangkok to New York / JFK on July 1, 2008. All A340-500 aircraft eventually sold. When the flight distance dently gives the load on the plane rather than long-haul flights, and spend more fuel to take off and landing are more frequent, very long haul flights to make the aircraft should be fully charged with fuel, which means that, during the plane trip much material fuel to carry fuel, a "flying tanker with a few passengers in it" said the chief executive of Air France-KLM Pierre-Henri Gourgeon told the Wall Street Journal.
When Thai Airways to consistently fill 80% seats in NYC-Bangkok flight, it is estimated that the price of fuel in 2008, it takes 120% of seats filled to break even, where rights are not possible.
Other airlines also oversee re-distance flights. In August 2008, Cathay Pacific told the Wall Street Journal that the increase in fuel prices is very disturbing long-distance flights, and will reduce the number of such flights and offers as well as lowering the aircraft in flight with the shorter distances such as between Hong Kong and Australia. "We would ... reshape our network to ensure we fly aircraft to where it can cover operational costs and also provide benefits," said Cathay Pacific CEO Tony Tyler told the newspaper.
There are currently four variants of the A340. and A340-200 and A340-300 was launched in 1987 and began service in March 1993. A340-500 and A340-600 was launched in 1997 and began to enter airline service in 2002. All these variants are also available in the corporate version of the Executive and Private Aviation Airbus.
One of two early versions of the A340, A340-200, with 261 passengers in three-class cabin look with the distance 7.450 nautical miles (13797.4 km), or with 240 passengers in three class configuration with a distance of 8.000 nautical miles (14 816 , 0 km) This is the shortest version of the aircraft and the only version with a wingspan greater than the length of the aircraft. The aircraft is powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C4 engines. This aircraft drencanakan to open lines long and thin, especially if passing the open sea. Closest competitor from Boeing for this aircraft was a Boeing 767-400.
One version of this type (called by Airbus as A340-8000) ordered by the Sultan of Brunei who want a flight distance as far as 8.000 nautical miles (14816.0 km). A340-8000 has a capacity of more fuel, with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 275 tonnes is equivalent to A340-300, and little change in the bottom. Once completed, obtain the maximum mileage as far as 8.100 nautical miles (15001.2 km). The aircraft is powered by 34,000 lbf-powered machine called CFMI CFM56-5C4-300E equivalent. Only one A340-8000 manufactured by Airbus A340-213X code (msn 204). The aircraft was delivered to the airline based in Brunei Sultan in November 1998, but never entered the ministry and neglected in the Lufthansa Technik in Hamburg. The aircraft was later bought by Saudi Arabian VIP in February 2007 as an additional wide-body fleet, according to flight data center Acas.
A340-200 aircraft other then given a performance that helped the development package has the ability equivalent to the A340-8000. The aircraft are labeled A340-213X. This version of the mileage reaches 8.000 NM (14.820 km).
Due to the large wingspan, four engines, low capacity, and the version of the A340-300, -200 version becomes difficult to accept and does not popular with major airlines. Only 28 A340-200, produced by some to be a VIP aircraft. South African Airways is the largest operator with 6 aircraft generally fly the route Cape Town. Another operator is Aerolíneas Argentinas (4), Royal Jordanian (4), Egypt Air (3) and Conviasa (1).
Some A340-200 is used for military or VIP keperluar. Examples used by the Royal Brunei Airlines, Qatar Amiri Flight, the Government of Egypt, the Air Force Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the French Air Force. The airline that once operated this aircraft is Cathay Pacific, Philippine Airlines, and Air Bourbon, along with other airlines. This version now has been discontinued.
A340-300 flies 295 passengers in three-class cabin configuration with the distance as far as 6.700 nautical miles (12408.4 km). This aircraft is an early version, began flying on October 25, 1991, and entered airline service with Lufthansa and Air France in March 1993. The aircraft is powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C engines, equivalent to the version of 200s. The closest competitor is the Boeing 777-200ER.
A340-300E, often incorrectly referred to as A340-300x, have an increased MTOW of up to 275 tonnes and powered by a more powerful engine (34,000 lbf) CFMI CFM56-5C4. Range with 295 passengers was between 7.200 nautical miles (13334.4 km) up to 7.400 nautical miles (13704.8 km). Lufthansa's biggest operator with 30 aircraft. The aircraft was first delivered to Singapore Airlines in April 1996, but Singapore Airlines had not operate this model. Two A340-300 bought by the German Luftwaffe Flugbereitschaft from VIP transport to serve the German government leaders and the President of Germany. The aircraft will enter service in 2011.
A340-300 Enhanced is the latest version of this type and was first delivered in 2003 to South African Airways. The aircraft is using the latest engine CFM56-5C4 / P and avionics and fly-by-wire newly developed for A340-500/-600.
A340-300 already tidah produced again with the last of 218 aircraft A340-300 sent to a private airline from the island of Cayman Island named Klaret Aviation in September 2008, with the latest airline to receive this is a Finnair plane in July 2008. A340-300 will be followed by the A350-900
Singapore Airlines, for example, initially using two-class configuration, 181-passenger flight to Newark-Singapore nonstop route, SQ 21: 18-hour travel time, 45-minutes to the west (actually to the north to save a distance of 70 nautical miles ( 129.6 km) through the north pole, then move to the south across Russia, Mongolia and China), and 18-hour, 30-minute eastward, with the distance 8.285 nautical miles (15343.8 km), which until now into the flight the world's longest scheduled commercial.
At the end of June 2008, Singapore Airlines completed the conversion of five A340-500 into a single business class configuration, with 100 seats, karen market demand. The aircraft is also used to route nonstop flights Los Angeles-Singapore SQ. Thai Airways International to use this model for nonstop flights from Bangkok to Los Angeles and New York / JFK, but stop service to New York on July 1, 2008 due to increased fuel prices. U.S. aviation magazine reported in late January 2010 that the Thai consider to reopen the route Bangkok-New York / JFK with a fleet of A340-500nya.
Route Los Angeles-Bangkok Thai is still in service. Armadac airlines in the form of four A340-500 would actually be sold, but due to low prices led to Thais pulled from the market in October 2008. Thai now use these aircraft for European lines thinner, such as Bangkok-Athens, However may sell them after receiving a reasonable price. Each aircraft is worth U.S. $ 180 million. A large airline flight to the Thai bid for each U.S. $ 50 million for a fleet of A340-500nya, who later rejected. Etihad Airways is the latest new user.
In the first A340-500 deliveries between airlines, TAM Airlines has hired two planes of Air Canada for use in São Paulo-Milan route. The aircraft will be moved to a new TAM route between São Paulo and Johannesburg apda financial year 2010. In addition, Nigerian airline Arik Air has purchased three A340-500 of Kingfisher Airlines. Kingfisher cancel one of five A340-500 aircraft orders in November 2009. In total there are 37 A340-500 which has been ordered by seven airlines, of which 6 diantarangan in VIP configuration for government service (including Qatar and Algeria) and private owners, with 31 deliveries in June 2010.
Compared with the A340-300, -500 version has a 4.3 meter longer hull, a larger wing area, significantly increase the fuel capacity (around 50% over -300), slightly higher cruising speed, larger rear wing and vertical tail smaller. A340-500/-600 has taxi cameras to help the pilot while maneuvering on land. A340-500 turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 553-powered 53 000 lbf.
A340-500HGW Version (English:''High Gross Weight / Weight empty large) has a mileage 9.000 nautical miles (16668.0 km) and MTOW of 380 tonnes and first flight on October 13, 2006. The aircraft uses a reinforced structure and increased fuel capacity in the A340-600HGW. Shipping inaugural flight will be given to Thai Airways International, on 11 April 2007 Kingfisher Airlines plans to use this type of aircraft to operate nonstop flights from India to North America. However, in October 2008, Kingfisher divert shipments of three of the five positions to Arik Air of Nigeria, due to global recession. Arik Air received three A340-500 in November 2008, and put the aircraft for the new route London Heathrow-Lagos and Lagos-Johannesburg route, with a nonstop flight to New York that ditambahnkan in January 2010. Atlanta, Miami and Houston are planned to be added later-500HGW A340 four-engine turbofan powered Rolls-Royce Trent 556 to power 56,000 lbf. Emirates is the largest operator with 10 aircraft.
Comparable Boeing 777-200LR is, which entered service in February 2006, through the A340-500 as a commercial passenger plane with the farthest distance, but the Boeing 777-200LR is plagued with ETOPS regulations.
Designed as a substitute for early generation Boeing 747, A340-600 flies 380 passengers in three-class cabin configuration (419 in 2 classes) as far as 7.500 nautical miles (13890.0 km). This aircraft provides similar passenger capacity to 747 manun with a cargo of 25% larger, and lower travel costs for each seat. A340-600 maiden flight performed on April 23, 2001. Virgin Atlantic mwmulai commercial service in August 2002.
A340-600 is approximately 10 m longer than the -300, empta meters longer than the Boeing 747-400 and 2.3 meters longer than the A380. This aircraft became the longest commercial passenger aircraft until February 2010 with the inaugural flight of the Boeing 747-8. A340-600 turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 556-powered 56 000 lbf with Honeywell APU 331-600 [A] The aircraft also has tmbahan four rear wheels in the middle of the hull planes to be able to cope with increased MTOW. Airbus aircraft cabin empty upper floors to provide additional facilities such optional crew rest area, kitchen and toilet on the ground floor plane.
In April 2007, The Times reported that Airbus had advised carriers to reduce cargo at the front of the plane by 5 tonnes to cope with excess weight in first and business class sections. The addition of weight causes the aircraft center of gravity moves forward and reduces the efficiency of flight mileage. Airlines that are affected by these suggestions are considering demanding compensation from Airbus.
Version of the A340-600HGW (High Gross Weight / English: Gross Large) first flight on 18 November 2005 and certified on April 14 this 2006.Pesawat MTOW of 380 tonnes with the distance reaches 7.900 nautical miles (14630.8 km), which may be due to the strengthening of the structure, additional fuel capacity, more powerful engine and new manufacturing techniques such as laser welding. A340-600HGW turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 560-powered 60 000 lbf.
Version of the A340-600HGW (High Gross Weight / English: Gross Large) first flight on 18 November 2005 and certified on April 14, 2006. This aircraft has a MTOW of 380 tonnes with the distance reaches 7.900 nautical miles (14630.8 km), which may be due to the strengthening of the structure, additional fuel capacity, more powerful engine and new manufacturing techniques such as laser welding. A340-600HGW turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 560-powered 60 000 lbf.
Emirates became the first user-600HGW version when ordering 18 planes at Paris Air Show 2003; but then postponed and eventually canceled the order. Rivals, Qatar Airways, which place an order on the same aerospace exhibition, only received four aircraft with first flight on 11 September 2006. This happened because they let their options orders expired.
The aircraft made by Boeing of the most equivalent to A340-600 aircraft is a 777-300ER.A340-600 will soon be replaced by A350-1000, which also will compete with the 777-300ER.
In March 2010 a British aviation magazine reported that Virgin Atlantic Airways has changed the orders six A340-600 aircraft left in the Airbus A330 for the route development. (This article does not state whether the version of the -200 or -300 is selected, however mentioned as a possible destination Vancouver and mentioned that the plane will have the latest-generation entertainment system.) The article states that Airbus has changed six A330 orders to make no more orders A340-600 are left. This makes the magazine speculates that the A350 has been closed making production line A340.